The shaping machine is utilized to machine flat surfaces, grooves, shoulders, T-slots, and angular surfaces with single-point tools. The cutting tool on the shaper oscillates, cutting on the forward stroke, with the work piece feeding automatically toward the tool during each return stroke.
The drilling machine can to cut holes in metal with a twist drill. By changing the cutting tool, they could be used to do reaming, boring, counter boring, countersinking, and threading.
The milling machine uses a rotating cutting tool to trim flat surfaces, grooves, and shoulders, inclined surfaces, dovetails, and T-slots. Cutters of numerous shapes are changed to slice different grooves.
Metal-cutting tools are classified as single point or multiple points. The lathe and shaping machine use single point cutting tool while the milling and drilling machines use multiple-point-cutting tools.
Metal is cut either by moving the work piece like in the lathe or by moving the tool like the actual planet shaping machine, drilling or milling machine. Clearance angles must be provided to prevent the tool surface beneath the cutting edge from rubbing against the work aspect. Rake angles are often provided on cutting tools to result in a wedging action in the formation of chips and in addition reduce friction and heat.
Many industrial concerns have workshops of their quite own. For the repair of worn shafts, the lathe machine is excellent. Keyway slots can be machined by using a milling machine, while a shaping machine can accomplish machining of large flat areas. A drilling machine does drilling of pockets.
A skilled Maintenance Engineer should know how incorporated with this all these machines in order to make his own repairs in a safe manner. Very often he's to supervise machinists. The below should be useful for that purpose.
The lathe machine the single-point-cutting tool for a number of turning, facing, and drilling jobs. Excess metal is removed by rotating the work piece over the fixed cutting tool to develop straight or tapered cylindrical shapes, grooves, shoulders and screw threads. It additionally be be used for facing flat surfaces on the ends of cylindrical sections.
The work piece is clamped onto a horizontal rotating shaft by a 3-jaw or 4-jaw toss. The latter chuck can be used to cut off-centered cylinders. The rotating horizontal spindle to which the chuck is attached is usually driven at speeds still that is really be varied.
The cutting tool is fixed onto a tool rest and manipulated by hand. It can also be power driven on straight paths parallel or perpendicular into the work axis. This is useful for screw cutting.
Internal turning known as boring results in the enlargement of an already existing hole. The holes are more accurate in roundness, concentricity, and parallelism than drilled holes. A hole is bored with a single-point-cutting tool that feeds with the inside of the work piece.
In order to eliminate chips from a piece piece, a cutting tool must be harder than the project piece and must maintain a front at the temperature produced by the friction of the cutting action.
Carbon steel tools even though comparatively inexpensive tend reduce cutting ability at temperatures around 400 degree F (205 degree C).
High-speed steel, containing 18 percent tungsten, 4 percent chromium, 1 percent vanadium, and only zero.5 to 0.8 percent carbon, permits the operation of tools twice or three times the speeds allowable with carbon steel
Cast-alloy cutting-tool materials containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten are good at cutting certain and retaining their cutting ability if red beautiful.
Cemented Tungsten Carbide
The hardness of Tungsten Carbide approaches that on the diamond. Tungsten carbide tools can be operated at cutting speeds many times higher compared to those used with high-speed stainless steel.
Ceramic, or oxide, tool tips consist primarily of proper aluminum oxide grains, which are bonded together. These are very hard.
An overheated tool can blunt and soft speedy. Therefore very often, cooling fluids cools the cutting points of your tool. This serves to lubricate and cool.
Water is excellent cooling medium, even so corrodes ferrous materials. Sulphurized mineral oil is really want the most popular coolants as it can both cool as well as grease. The sulfur prevents chips through your work from melting on to the tip of the tool.