The role of electrical transformers is to switch voltage from one value to another; normally from higher to lower voltage or vice versa. They consist of two sets of coils or windings that are connected to a ferromagnetic core. There are two types of coilsthe primary and secondary conductors.
A changing current in the primary conductor produces alternating magnetic fields in the core, which in turn multiples the fields and couples most of the flux with the secondary conductor. This incites the alternating voltage or EMF in each of the secondary conductor.
The cores can be customized as toroidal or laminated. The toroidal has several advantages such as producing low magnetic leakage, close flux path, low noise and smaller core size, lighter and more efficient. They have copper wires wrapped around a cylindrical core preventing leakage of magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is not very influential on other components.
On the other hand, the laminated core is composed of sheets of magnetic material that is insulated from one another with a non-conducting material such as varnish, producing a core that decreases electrical losses.
Electrical transformers can be configured in two ways. You can choose single-phase or three-phase. In switching the voltage level, the principle of magnetic induction between coils is to transfer voltage between coils from the electricity that flows through them. The transformers are passive devices that initiates the transformation of alternating current or AC electrical energy from one circuit into another through electromagnetic induction.
Many homes and businesses have transformers to transfer electricity from power plants. The voltage of the transformers at the power plants is normally high. As they reached the substation, the voltage is lowered. When they reached smaller transformer, the voltage is lowered again. The adjustment in voltage is a continuous process, which only stops when the power reaches the useable level.
The inward voltage of electrical transformers is very crucial. There are three general frequencies that are easy to obtain. These are the 50 Hertz, 60 hertz, and 400 hertz. If you are in Europe, the standard power is 50 hertz. In North America, the average power is 60 hertz. The 400 hertz is set aside for high-capacity purposes like aerospace technologies.
In estimating transformers, it is important to consider power specifications such as highest ratings of the next current, the secondary current ratings, highest power rating, the voltage rating, output type and output choices, such as AC or DC.
Transformers come in several types. There are power transformers, current transformers, step down transformers, low voltage transformers, distribution transformer, instrument transformers, general purpose transformers and automatic transformers.
The power transformers have several configurations based on segments and links. The distribution transformer decrease the primary voltage of the electric distribution system so that it can be used by customer. Auto electrical transformers are smaller in size, weigh less and have better voltage stability as well as overload tolerance.
The manner by which the electrical transformers function has changed. They made life easier for people as they transfer power efficient and more economical. The electricity that is available in your house passes through many different transformers before it is usable as a low voltage.